In this section, the declarations, agreements, and resolutions concerning the international community are analyzed in depth. 

  • Human Development Index: What is it? What does it do? and Is it Enough?



    You probably heard the term Human Development Index or its abbreviation HDI before but what does it really mean? HDI is an annually conducted index released by the United Nations Development Programme or UNDP for short. The original creator of the index however is Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and he says that he created it "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies''.

  • Inequality Series 2: Racial Inequality

    Ece HASGÜL


    For the second article of our inequality series, we will be covering racial inequality and we will try to handle topics such as its history, how it got legitimized through time, and what it is and what it is not.

  • Inequality Series Part 1: Gender Inequality

    Duygu BAYRAM


    Political equality refers to the state of each member or group in a society holding equal standing in terms of social, legal, and economic rights. While the concept itself is easy to understand, it is certainly proving to be difficult to uphold even in the countries with the most developed sense of human rights.

  • Understanding The Purpose and Inner Workings of the World Bank

    Boran GÖHER


    If you are one of the countless people on Earth who follow international politics on a regular basis but does not go out of their way to research what each economic institution on the news is trying to accomplish, you probably do not have much clue about the purpose and the inner workings of the World Bank or IMF.

  • Abortion Bills Around the World

    Ece HASGÜL


    On April 15, Polish law-makers started to work on new legislation which would ban abortion in the case of fetal abnormalities. In a country which already strict rules while allowing abortions, only in the cases of rape, danger to the mother's health or life, or severe damage to the fetus, this meant criminalization of abortion nearly altogether.

  • Environmental Effects of Meat Production: How Our Dietary Choices Affect the Planet

    Begüm GÜVEN & Ece HASGÜL


    The livestock industry rapidly grew up after the 2000s, along with the meat consumption. That meant farms needed more space in order to raise their cattle. Currently 5.1 billion ha (equal to 51 million km2) of land is used for agriculture only.

  • Are Immigrants Stealing Jobs?

    Duygu BAYRAM


    We do not choose where we are born or the circumstances of the land we are born to. By pure luck, some people are born in richer, more developed countries, while most people are born into poverty and human rights crises. It is no surprise then, that these people would want a chance to move and start a new life in one of those more well-adjusted worlds. And sometimes, some people just like to move, simply because they would prefer to live somewhere else. Those who move to a different country in order to obtain a residence permit or citizenship at their new location are called immigrants.

  • COVID-19 Presses Pause on Schools, Girls Get Affected the Most

    Ece HASGÜL


    COVID-19 forces children out of school in 185 countries for who knows how long, but girls from marginalized communities may not even be able to go back. For girls who live in less developed countries, going to school is not a new struggle. Already having lower rates of enrolment to secondary education compared to boys, it can be estimated that rates will drop down further, as families get affected economically as an outcome of coronavirus.

  • Antitrust Laws and Capitalism: The Free Market Dystopia

    Hülya AFAT


    A market is a place where people gather to purchase items, it also means the composition of the institutions and parties engage in exchange. The free market is a state of the market where there is no government intervention, nor regulations. Antitrust laws are the regulatory mechanisms and codes created by the governments for the markets in order to protect the consumers from unfair trades. In this article, I will explain the relation between the market mechanism and the government, and the inevitable failure of the free market in a world without perfect information.

  • Access to COVID Vaccines:
    Universal Healthcare’s Time to Shine

    Alp Ünal AYHAN


    The COVID-19 pandemic is still in (almost) full effect throughout the world and contagion of the disease is getting out of control in many countries. Reopening efforts gave the virus more opportunities to spread while the “new normal” standards proved ineffective in preventing infections.

  • A More Equal World for Everyone: Feminism

    Didem ÖZÇAKIR & Hülya AFAT


    All human beings are equal and therefore should have equal rights, everyone can agree on that statement. However, when someone expresses that they are a feminist, that is a political and radicalizing statement. Women expressing concern about their own freedom has always seen as threatening behavior.

  • The Evolution of Passports

    Kaan ERTAN


    One thing that COVID’19 pandemic definitely reminded us of, is how valuable our right of movement is. No matter if we travel for work-related purposes or for recreational purposes, it is a luxury and inseparable part of the 21st century. But how did people use to travel internationally in the past?

  • 10 Years to Save the World: The Green New Deal

    Alp Ünal AYHAN


    It is widely known by now that humans cause climate change. UN’s International Panel on Climate Change reckoned that "human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of observed warming since the mid-20th century " in a 2018 report. The same report also concluded that a reduction of 40-60% of carbon emissions has to be accomplished by 2030 and we should achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.

  • Universal Basic Income: Need or Fantasy?

    Didem ÖZÇAKIR & Duygu BAYRAM


    Universal Basic Income (UBI) is a proposed social policy in which each citizen receives a set amount of monthly income that covers the costs of their basic needs. The main difference between UBI and Welfare is that UBI is for everyone, it has no conditions, and it cannot be taken away. Sounds too good to ever become a reality?

PRESENT is a non-profit monthly bulletin published by the Model United Nations Subcommittee of Boğaziçi University Debating Society (BUDS) on the first Monday of every month. 
Articles in the issues of PRESENT do not reflect the views of Boğaziçi University or BUDS. Opinions belong solely to the author(s). All pictures copyright to their respective owner(s). PRESENT does not claim ownership of any of the pictures displayed on this bulletin. All images are used for noncommercial and educational purposes. If any images posted here are in violation of copyright law, please contact us and we will gladly remove the offending images immediately.

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